Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
Then Allah revealed about Usamah Ibn Zayd who killed Mirdas Ibn Nuhayk al-Farari, a fellow believer, saying: (O ye who believe! When ye go forth (to fight) in the way of Allah) in jihad, (be careful to discriminate) between who is a believer and who is an unbeliever, (and say not unto one who offereth you peace) he who greets you and says to you “there is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah”: (“Thou art not a believer”;) and then kill him (seeking the chance profits of this life) so that you may despoil him. (With Allah are plenteous spoils) He has with Him a tremendous reward for him who avoids killing a fellow believer. (Even thus (as he now is) were ye before) with your people feeling safe with the believers and with Muhammad (pbuh) and his Companions because of the attestation of “there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah”, before the Emigration; (but Allah hath since then been gracious unto you) by migrating from the unbelievers. (Therefore take care to discriminate) such that you do not kill believers. (Allah is ever informed of what ye do) whether it is killing someone or other things.
Tafsir Ibn 'Abbas, trans. Mokrane Guezzou
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