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فَتَلَقَّىٰ ءَادَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَٰتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ ٱلتَّوَّابُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ
-Al-Baqarah ( البقرة )

Tafsir al-Tustari

Thereafter Adam received certain words from his Lord, and He relented towards him...Sahl was asked, ‘What were the words that Adam learnt from his Lord?’ He replied:Muḥammad b. Sawwār informed me, [in a narration] from his father, from al-Thawrī, from ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Rafīʿ, on the authority of ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar y, that he [the latter] said: ‘When Adam recalled his error he said: “O Lord, do you see the act of disobedience by which I disobeyed You as something that You preordained for me before You created me, or somethingthat I initiated?” He replied: “Indeed, it is something that I preordained for you, that you would do as a consequence of My lifting My protection from you, fifty thousand years before creating you.” Then Adam asked, “As you preordained it for me, then forgive me, for indeed We have wronged our own souls [7:23], through carrying out the lower self’s desire and relying on its devising, and we have repented from ever going back to that. If You do not forgive us — that is, in this life, and have mercy upon us, during what remains of our lives we shall surely be among the lost [7:23] — that is, among the damned and tormented in the Hereafter.”’So these were the words which God, Exalted is He, was speaking about when He said: Thereafter Adam received certain words from his Lord, and his Lord relented towards him, truly He is the Relenting, the Merciful.It was related from the Prophet that he said: ‘Adam asked Moses, (peace be upon them both), “How many years before my creation do you find that my sin was destined for me?” He replied, “Forty thousand years.”’ The Prophet then said, ‘Thus did Adam confute Moses (peace be upon them both).’ Sahl was asked about God’s words:
[2:30]…Whilst we glorify You with praise and sanctify You…It means ‘We purify ourselves for Your sake by saying what You inspired us to say through the favour that You bestowed upon us. Blessed are You, O our Lord!’

Tafsīr al-Tustarī, trans. Annabel Keeler and Ali Keeler
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