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ٱلَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلاَتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ
-Al-Mu’minûn ( المؤمنون )

Tafsir al-Tustari

Indeed, prosperous are the believers, ! those who in their prayers are humbly submissive (khāshiʿūn),[Sahl was asked], ‘What is humble submission?’ He replied:Humble submission (khushūʿ) is openly [manifested] (ʿalāniyya). It is to stand before God, Exalted is He, while maintaining the conditions for the finest conduct (ādāb) required by the One who commands (al-Āmir), which is to purge your [moments of] activity (ḥarakāt) and stillness (sukūn) from anything other than Him. The root of this is fear (khashiya) within the innermost secret (sirr). If a person is given fear, humble submission will manifest in his exterior and this is one of the conditions of [true] faith.It has been related of Ḥasan b. ʿAlī y that when he finished his ablutions, the colour of his face would change and he was asked about that. He said, ‘It is appropriate that the face of the one who intends to enter the presence of the Master of the Throne [God] should change colour.’ It is related of the Prophet that he said to Muʿādh, ‘Truly, the Qurʾān has curbed (qayyada) the believer from much of what his lower self desires, and by God’s permission has come between him and his being ruined by that desire. Indeed, the believer is a captive to whomsoever has a rightful claim over him. O Muʿādh! The believer strives to liberate himself. O Muʿādh! Truly a believer’s fear will not abate, nor his unrest be stilled until he leaves behind him the Traverse over Hell. O Muʿādh! Truly the believer knows that there are observers keeping watch over his hearing, sight, tongue, hands, feet, stomach and genitals, and even the blinking of his eye, the particles of mud on his fingers, the kohl in his eyes and every movement he makes. Mindfulness of God (taqwā) is his companion (rafīq), the Qurʾān is his guide (dalīl), fear (khawf) is his way (maḥajja), longing (shawq) is his riding beast (maṭiyya), dread (wajl) is his emblem (shiʿār), prayer (ṣalāt) is his cave [of refuge] (kahf), fasting (ṣiyām) is his garden [or Paradise] (janna), charity (ṣadaqa) is his source of liberation (fikāk), truthfulness (ṣidq) is his vizier, shame (ḥayāʾ) is his emir, and behind all of these, his Lord is on the look out (bi-mirṣād). O Muʿādh! I wish for you what I wish for myself. I have forbidden you that which Gabriel forbade me. I do not know anyone at all who will join me on the Day of Resurrection and who will be happier than you at what God has granted you.’ His words:

Tafsīr al-Tustarī, trans. Annabel Keeler and Ali Keeler
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