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فَلَمَّا فَصَلَ طَالُوتُ بِٱلْجُنُودِ قَالَ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مُبْتَلِيكُمْ بِنَهَرٍ فَمَن شَرِبَ مِنْهُ فَلَيْسَ مِنِّي وَمَن لَّمْ يَطْعَمْهُ فَإِنَّهُ مِنِّيۤ إِلاَّ مَنِ ٱغْتَرَفَ غُرْفَةً بِيَدِهِ فَشَرِبُواْ مِنْهُ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً مِّنْهُمْ فَلَمَّا جَاوَزَهُ هُوَ وَٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ مَعَهُ قَالُواْ لاَ طَاقَةَ لَنَا ٱلْيَوْمَ بِجَالُوتَ وَجُنودِهِ قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُمْ مُلاَقُواْ ٱللَّهِ كَم مِّن فِئَةٍ قَلِيلَةٍ غَلَبَتْ فِئَةً كَثِيرَةً بِإِذْنِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱللَّهُ مَعَ ٱلصَّابِرِينَ
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-Al-Baqarah ( البقرة )

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when Saul went forth with the hosts, from the Holy House [sc. Jerusalem], the heat was intense and so they asked him for water; he said, ‘God will try, test, you, in order to distinguish the obedient among you from the disobedient, with a river, between Jordan and Palestine, whoever drinks of it, of its water, is not of me, is not of my followers, and whoever tastes it not, he is of me, except for him who scoops up with his hand’ (ghurfa, or gharfa, ‘a scoop’), satisfying himself therewith and not taking more, he is also of my followers. But they drank of it, when they reached it and saw that it was abundant, except a few of them, who restricted themselves to a scoop: it is reported that one scoop was enough for each man and his horse, and they numbered over three hundred; and when he crossed it, with those who believed, the ones who confined themselves to the one scoop, they, the ones that drank profusely, said, ‘We have no power today against Goliath and his troops’, that is, [no power] to fight them, and they were cowardly and did not cross it. Those who thought, with certainty that, they would meet God, at the Resurrection, and these were the ones that crossed it, said, ‘How often (kam, ‘how’, functions as a predicate, meaning kathīr, ‘many’) a little company, group of men, has overcome a numerous one, by God’s leave, by His will; and God is with the patient’, [providing them] with help and assistance.


Tafsir al-Jalalayn, trans. Feras Hamza
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