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شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ ٱلَّذِيۤ أُنْزِلَ فِيهِ ٱلْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ ٱلْهُدَىٰ وَٱلْفُرْقَانِ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ ٱلشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضاً أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ بِكُمُ ٱلْيُسْرَ وَلاَ يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ ٱلْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُواْ ٱلْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُواْ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
١٨٥
-Al-Baqarah ( البقرة )

Kashani Tafsir

The month of Rama?ān, namely, the consumption of the soul by the fire of the light of the Truth, wherein, at that time, was revealed the QurÌān, in other words, the all-encompassing undifferentiated knowledge that is called the QurÌānic intellect that leads to the station of the union [a guidance for the people] as a means to guiding people to the unity on account of the union, and as clear signs of the Guidance [and the Criterion], and proofs that are connected to the union and the dispersion, in other words, the differentiated knowledge that is called the Criterion intellect. [So let those of you who are present at the month], so let he who was present at that time, that is to say, [let] he who had attained the station of the witnessing of the essence, fast it, that is, let him abstain from any speech, act or movement that does not involve the Truth; and if any of you be sick, that is, tested by sicknesses of the heart by way of the ego-centric veils that prevent such a witnessing, or if he be on a journey, that is [if he] still be wayfaring and has not reached [the station of] the witnessing of the essence, [then a number of other days] then he has other stages which he needs to pass in order to reach that station. God desires ease for you, by [your] attaining the station of the Oneness and being reinforced by the power of God, and desires not hardship for you, namely, the charging of acts upon weak and incapacitated souls; and so that you fulfil the number, and so that you complete those stages and states and stations that will make [you] arrive [at the station of the witnessing of the Essence], [and magnify God for having guided you], and so that you extol God and come to know His grandeur and magnificence for His guiding you to the station of the Union, and that you might be thankful, by being [morally] upright: He has commanded you [to do] that.