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وَٱتْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ نَبَأَ ٱبْنَيْ ءَادَمَ بِٱلْحَقِّ إِذْ قَرَّبَا قُرْبَاناً فَتُقُبِّلَ مِن أَحَدِهِمَا وَلَمْ يُتَقَبَّلْ مِنَ ٱلآخَرِ قَالَ لأَقْتُلَنَّكَ قَالَ إِنَّمَا يَتَقَبَّلُ ٱللَّهُ مِنَ ٱلْمُتَّقِينَ
-Al-Mâ’idah ( المائدة )

Kashani Tafsir

And recite to them the story of the two sons of Adam, [Adam] of the heart, of the two who are Abel of the heart and Cain of estimation. Each of them had a twin. As for the twin of the intellect, this is the cognitive intelligence (āqila ʿilmiyya) that manages the affairs relating to livelihood and the final return by means of beneficial opinions that require righteous deeds and excellent characters traits which are able to infer all types of handiwork and rules of governance. As for the twin of the estimative faculty, this is the imaginal faculty that has free disposal of objects of sensory perception and particular meanings for the purpose of actualising satanic opinions. Thus the Adam of the heart commanded that the estimative faculty be married to the twin of the intellect, namely, the cognitive intelligence so that it might acquire mastery over it by means of rational proof-based analogies and that it might train it by means of obedience-inducing forms of spiritual disciplining and spiritual manipulation, making it subject to the intellect so that it might become obedient to the father-heart, be kind to him and be dutiful towards him and designate him in righteous deeds and refrain from being disobedient to him through corrupt satanic enticements and embellishments and by tempting the soul to these through wicked configurations and evil deeds. As for the marrying of the intellect the twin of estimation, that is in order to make it righteous and to prevent it from lusting after corrupt imaginations and from the goading of the mendacious conversations of the soul so that its father [the heart] might find rest from it and exercise it in intelligible and sensory objects as well as universal and particular meanings so that it then becomes a reflective entity that works to actualise forms of knowledge and its father thereby profits. The Cain of estimation was envious of the Abel of the intellect since his [Abel's] twin was more beautiful to him [Abel] and more beloved [to him] on account of its correspondence to him. Their father the heart commanded that each of them offer a sacrifice, a ritual slaughter, with which to draw nearer to God by means of the effusion of the result [of the sacrifice] and the annihilation of the analogous form and the acceptance of the universal intelligible form [of the sacrifice] that corresponds to the very thing that is his ritual sacrifice by which he seeks nearness to God. The non-acceptance of the sacrifice of estimation, which is a fraudulent form or a particular illusory form, is due to the impossibility of the conjunction of the intellect to it at the effusion of the result since there is no result therefrom, or it is due to the impossibility of the acceptance of the illusory form, since there is no correspondence to the very thing [being sacrificed]. Thus his envy increased against him: He said, 'I will surely slay you', that is, the closer that the intellect drew to God and the further away it became from the level of estimation in terms of the objects of its perception and objects of disposal, the more eager was the desire of the estimation to invalidate its [the intellect's] deed and to prevent it from its act, as when you see [the appearance of the] doubts induced by illusion and its [estimation's] opposition to the intellect's actualisation of profound considerative pursuits. As for his slaying, this expresses its [the estimation's] attempt to prevent it [the intellect] from its act and to sever from it any reinforcement from the spirit and the light of guidance from which the intellect draws life. [The other said, God accepts only] from the God-fearing: those who take God as their protective shield when good things issue from them, or who guard against the sins of dark corporeal configurations, invalid fabrications, misguiding deceptions, ruinous caprices and destructive temptations.