Tafsir

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شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ ٱلَّذِيۤ أُنْزِلَ فِيهِ ٱلْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ ٱلْهُدَىٰ وَٱلْفُرْقَانِ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ ٱلشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضاً أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ بِكُمُ ٱلْيُسْرَ وَلاَ يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ ٱلْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُواْ ٱلْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُواْ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
١٨٥
-Al-Baqarah ( البقرة )

Al Qushairi Tafsir

The month of RamaḌān, in which the QurÌān was revealed, a guidance for the people, and as clear proofs of the guidance and the criterion; So let those of you who are present [at his home] at the month, fast it and if any of you be sick, or if he be on a journey, then a number of other days.
RamaḌān burns (yurmiḌu) the sins (dhunūb) of some people and burns the outward characteristics (rusūm) of other people. What a difference between those whose sins are burned by His mercy and those whose out- ward characteristics are burned by His reality!
The month of RamaḌān is the month of the opening of the [divine] speech (khiṬāb), the month of the revelation of the Book (kitāb), the month of obtaining the reward (thawāb), the month of drawing near and [gain- ing God's] approval (ījāb), the month of the lightening of burdens (takhfīf al-kulfa), the month of achieving intimacy (taḥqīq al-zulfa), the month of descending mercy (nuzūl al-raḥma), the month of granting blessing (wufūr al-niʿma), the month of salvation (najāt), and the month of intimate conversation (munājāt).
God desires ease for you, and desires not hardship for you
Part of His desiring ease for you is knowing that He desires ease for you. Among the signs that He desires ease for His servant is that He has brought about the search for ease, for if [God] had not desired ease for [His ser- vant] He would not have placed a desire for it in him. The one who spoke for them said :
If You had not wanted me to obtain that for which I hope and seek from Your generosity, You would not have taught me to seek.
[God] made hope [for ease] appropriate and confirmed the longing [for it]. He enjoined this inasmuch as He said, “and He desires not hardship for you.” This was to negate the possibilities of other ways of thinking, leaving the true sense clearly spelled out.
and that you fulfill the number
According to the language of scholars (lisān al-ʿilm), [it is] that you fulfill the number [of days] of the fast. According to the language of allusion (lisān al-ishāra), [it is] “that in the happiness of the present moment (ṣafāÌ al-ḥāl) you should be aware of the fulfillment of the end (wafāÌ al-maÌāl).”
and magnify God for having guided you and that you might be thankful
[Thankful] in the final breath and that you might leave the numbered [days] of your life in the security (salāma) of your faith. [God's] granting of suc- cess (tawfīq) in completing the fast of the month is immensely important, but it is even greater to have your life sealed with felicity.