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وَأَتِمُّواْ ٱلْحَجَّ وَٱلْعُمْرَةَ للَّهِ فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا ٱسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ ٱلْهَدْيِ وَلاَ تَحْلِقُواْ رُؤُوسَكُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَبْلُغَ ٱلْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضاً أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِّن رَّأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ فَإِذَآ أَمِنتُمْ فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِٱلْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى ٱلْحَجِّ فَمَا ٱسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ ٱلْهَدْيِ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي ٱلْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كَامِلَةٌ ذٰلِكَ لِمَن لَّمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلُهُ حَاضِرِي ٱلْمَسْجِدِ ٱلْحَرَامِ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلْعِقَابِ
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-Al-Baqarah ( البقرة )

Al Qushairi Tafsir

Fulfill the pilgrimage and the visitation to God;
The fulfillment of the pilgrimage, according to the language of scholars, is the performance of its basic elements, its practice, its form, and the shedding of blood, which is required in it, without curtailing any of the conditions. It is mentioned in the tafsīr literature that in both [the ḥajj and the ʿumra], you are forbidden from the dwellings of your family [until you have completed all the requirements].
In the language of allusion, the pilgrimage is the quest (qaṣd). The quest is to the House of the Real and the quest to the Real is, first, the pilgrim- age of ordinary people and second, the pilgrimage of the elect. Just as the one who makes the pilgrimage through his [outward] self enters the consecrated state and stands [at ʿArafāt], circumambulates the House and runs [between ṣafā and Marwa], and then shaves [his head], so it is with the one who makes the pilgrimage through his heart. His state of consecration (iḥrām) [comes] from [his] sound resolve (ʿaqd ṣaḥīḥ) to undertake a pure quest (qaṣd ṣarīḥ). He removes the clothing of his oppositional ten- dencies and his carnal passions. He then wraps himself in the two robes of patience and poverty. He abstains from pursuing his worldly fortunes, [that is] the following of whims, and he releases thoughts of desired things, etc. Then [just as] as the [outward] pilgrim becomes increasingly unkempt and dusty, likewise the traces of humility and submission appear upon [the pilgrim of the heart]. Then the talbiya of the innermost selves occurs in the response of every part of you.
“The most excellent of the actions of the pilgrimage (ḥajj) are the sac- rificial blood-letting (thajj) and the crying out (ʿajj).” The thajj is the pouring of blood [of the animal sacrificed] and the ʿajj is raising the voice in talbiya. Likewise, the shedding of the blood of the lower self [comes] with the knives of opposition [to it], and the raising of the voices of the innermost self [comes] by continuously seeking [God's] help and with the beauty of responding [to the call]. Then [one] stands at the plains of nearness, seeking perfection in the attributes of awe. The standing place of the [outward] selves is ʿArafāt, while the standing place of hearts is the names and attributes (ṣifāt) belonging to the majesty of the essence (dhāt) at the time of intimate communications (muwāṣalāt). Then the hearts cir- cumambulate around the sites of majesty. The running of the innermost selves [takes place] between the two hills of the unveiling of the Sublime (kashf al-jalāl) and the kindness of the Beauty (luṬf al-jamāl). Then the completion [of the rites] [comes] through cutting the ties of wishes and free choices, desires and resistances, in every way.
but if you are prevented, then [give] such offering as may be feasible, [One may] be prevented by one of two causes, either an enemy or illness.
[Here] the allusion is to an enemy overcoming the lower self, so that you find no escape but to dismount in the courtyard of indulgences (rukhaṣ) and rational interpretive license (taÌwīlāt al-ʿilm). At that moment this is permitted to you because of [your] excuse and necessity, since there is no wrangling with the decree (ḥukm). The offering is that which one gives at this time, paying the determined amount and giving it to the poor, and waiting for the restriction to pass so that the command [to make the pil- grimage] can resume.
If one's spiritual desires (irādāt) become infirm, the seeking (quṣūd) weak, and the affair reverts to [mere] obligation (taklīf), let one [in this circumstance] strive not to turn away [altogether], just as in the external pilgrimage one strives not to turn away because of an illness or if one needs clothing or a haircut, etc. [This is allowable] through the provision of expiation [given in this verse]. If he is weak, he should stay where he is for a while, standing and sitting in the prescriptions of the quest (awṣāf al-qaṣd) and the precepts of spiritual desire (aḥkām al-irāda). If he turns back-may God protect us-he will meet only rejection and obstruction.” It is said:
Our separation from one another was not from hatred. Rather it is the passage of time (dahr) that breaks up and draws together.
Someone else said: I am not-even though I love someone who resides in wide open plains- the first to hope for something unattainable.
and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches its place. If any of you is sick, or has an ailment of the head, then a redemption by fast, or a voluntary almsgiving, or a ritual sacrifice.
One makes a sacrifice to the extent that one is able, expending all that one can, with the traces of grief upon one, filled with the sorrows of being veiled. If any of you is sick or has an ailment of the head, then a redemption by fast, or a voluntary almsgiving, or a ritual sacrifice: the allusion is that one humbles oneself and exerts oneself by circumambulating the friends [of God], serving the poor (fuqarāÌ), and drawing near as one is able, in the various ways of striving and supplicating.
When you are secure, then whoever enjoys the visitation, until the pilgrimage; let his offering be such as is feasible, or if he finds none, then a fast of three days in the pilgrimage. And of seven when you return; that is a full ten; that is for him whose family are not present at the sacred mosque. And fear God, and know that God is severe in retribution.
When the moons of the questing appear from glorious disclosures and the concealing veils are removed from the suns of union, and the light of the approach rises during the days of standing [at ʿArafāt], let [the pilgrim] start anew at that moment (waqtan) for the sake of union, and let him spread a carpet (bisāṬan) to draw near. Let him renew, by virtue of happiness, the performance [of devotional acts] with good cheer (nashāṬan), and let him say, “Come to joy for the days of hardship are over!” Let him complete the pilgrimage and the visitation and let him continue to perform the precepts of companionship and service.
And know that God is severe in retribution in veiling those who have not been shown the new moons of union and approach.