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لاَّ يُحِبُّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْجَهْرَ بِٱلسُّوۤءِ مِنَ ٱلْقَوْلِ إِلاَّ مَن ظُلِمَ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ سَمِيعاً عَلِيماً
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-An-Nisâ’ ( النساء )

Al Qushairi Tafsir

God does not like the utterance of evil words out loud, unless a person has been wronged. God is ever Hearer, Knower.
What a person who has been wronged says about the one who has wronged him is not evil in the true sense of the word, by the permission of God, but it is nonetheless a good thing to let the matter drop. God most high has said, “For the requital of an evil is an evil deed like it” [42:40], so requital is not an evil deed. [But whoever pardons and reconciles, his reward will be with God. Truly He does not like wrongdoers] [42:40].
It is said that anyone who knows that his Protector hears is ashamed to give free voice to the urgings of his lower self. It is said that evil words out loud are what you hear within yourself [when] you think ill thoughts about others. The elect take responsibility in their inward thoughts for that which, if heard [out loud] from ordinary people, might be held against them.
Unless (illā) a person has been wronged: Some say [this means] “not even (wa-lā) the one who has been wronged.” Others say its meaning is this: “But (wa-lakinna) a person who has been wronged” has the right to mention the one who has intentionally wronged him. It is said that those who do not prefer praise of the Real (madḥ al-ḥaqq) over defaming one's fellow creatures (qadḥ al-khalq) have been cheated of the present moment.
It is said that those who look to created beings with the eye of connect- ing to the Real, [see] that they are servants of God, [and] will speak no ill of them. A man says to his companion, “Out of respect for you, I will bear the lowliest149 service to you, even beyond that which I would bear for my son.” When there is commitment like this between human beings, how much more worthy is the servant's regard for refined behavior (adab) between him and His Protector!
It is said that God does not like the utterance of evil words out loud among ordinary people, nor does He like that in the inward thoughts of the elect.
It is said that the utterance of evil words out loud among ordinary people is their description of God in ways [for which they] have no permission or divine sanction.
The utterance of evil words out loud is describing your fellow creatures in ways that the law does not permit. [It is] describing the Real as He cannot be described, so that you will be lying regarding Him. [It is also] describing any deficiencies of the elect, even if you are being sincere. God is ever Hearer, Knower: Hearer of what you say, Knower of your defects. It means “do not say of others that which you know is the same in you.”
It is said [this means] Hearer of what you say, Knower of the blameless- ness of the one you defame. There is a threat in [the verse] to the defamer on behalf of the one who is innocent of what he has been accused. It is said that Hearer, [is addressed to] “O you who wrongs,” [and] Knower [is addressed to] “O you who has been wronged.” This is a threat to these and good news for those.