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وَٱعْبُدُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَلاَ تُشْرِكُواْ بِهِ شَيْئاً وَبِٱلْوَٰلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَاناً وَبِذِي ٱلْقُرْبَىٰ وَٱلْيَتَٰمَىٰ وَٱلْمَسَٰكِينِ وَٱلْجَارِ ذِي ٱلْقُرْبَىٰ وَٱلْجَارِ ٱلْجُنُبِ وَٱلصَّاحِبِ بِٱلجَنْبِ وَٱبْنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَٰنُكُمْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ مُخْتَالاً فَخُوراً
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-An-Nisâ’ ( النساء )

Tafsir al-Tustari

...to the neighbour who is close, and the neighbour who is a stranger, to the companion at your side, and to the wayfarer… He said:As for the outward meaning: the neighbour who is a stranger is the one who is not related to you and is foreign; the companion at your side is your fellow traveller, or it has also been said that it is your spouse; and the wayfarer (ibn al-sabīl) means the guest. As for its inner meaning: the neighbour who is near refers to the heart (qalb); the neighbour who is a stranger is the ⸢self in its natural state (al-nafs al-ṭabīʿī)⸣; and the companion by your side is the intellect (ʿaql), which is guided by the sharīʿa. The wayfarer refers to the bodily members (jawāriḥ) which are in a state of obedience to God. This is the inner meaning of the verse.His words:


Tafsīr al-Tustarī, trans. Annabel Keeler and Ali Keeler
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