Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
Allah then mentioned His blessings upon them, saying: (Then, after grief, He sent down security for you) from the enemy. (As slumber did it overcome a party of you) such that those among you who had sincerity and certitude slept, (while (the other) party, who were anxious on their own account) who were overcome with anxiousness about themselves. This refers to Mu'attib Ibn Qushayr, the hypocrite, and his fellows who were not overcome by sleep, (thought wrongly of Allah) that He would not come to the help of His Messenger and his Companions, (the thought of ignorance) as they did think of Him in the time of ignorance [before the advent of Islam]. (They said: Have we any part in the cause) any part in triumph and domination? (Say) O Muhammad: (The cause) triumph and domination (belongeth wholly to Allah) they are in the Hand of Allah. (They hide within themselves (a thought) which they reveal not unto you) for fear that they would be killed, (saying: Had we had any part in the cause we should not have been slain here. Say) to the hypocrites, O Muhammad: (Even though ye had been in your houses) in Medina, (those appointed to be slain would have gone forth to the places where they were to lie) where they were to be killed at Uhud. ((All this has been) in order that Allah might try) test (what is in your breasts) what is in the breast of the hypocrites (and prove) bring to the fore (what is in your hearts) of hypocrisy. (Allah is Aware of what is hidden in the breasts (of men)) He knows what is in people's hearts of good and evil, i.e. the hearts of hypocrites; it is also said that it refers to the hearts of the archers.
Tafsir Ibn 'Abbas, trans. Mokrane Guezzou
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