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إِذْ أَنتُمْ بِالْعُدْوَةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا وَهُم بِٱلْعُدْوَةِ ٱلْقُصْوَىٰ وَٱلرَّكْبُ أَسْفَلَ مِنكُمْ وَلَوْ تَوَاعَدتُّمْ لاَخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِي ٱلْمِيعَادِ وَلَـٰكِن لِّيَقْضِيَ ٱللَّهُ أَمْراً كَانَ مَفْعُولاً لِّيَهْلِكَ مَنْ هَلَكَ عَن بَيِّنَةٍ وَيَحْيَىٰ مَنْ حَيَّ عَن بَيِّنَةٍ وَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَسَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
-Al-Anfâl ( الأنفال )

Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs

(When ye were) O believers (on the near bank (of the valley)) close to Medina (and they) Abu Jahl and his host (were on the yonder bank) farther from Medina, beyond the valley, (and the caravan) of Abu Sufyan and his host (was below you (on the coast plain)) three miles away. (And had ye trysted to meet one another) in Medina to fight (ye surely would have failed to keep the tryst) to be able to do so, (but (it happened, as it did, without the forethought of either of you) that Allah might conclude a thing that must be done) giving victory and the spoils of war to the Prophet (pbuh) and his Companions, and death and defeat to Abu Jahl and his host; (that he who perished (on that day) might perish) he who perished as a disbeliever may perish (by a clear proof) after showing Allah's assistance to Muhammad (pbuh) (and he who survived) and was firm on faith (might survive) he whom Allah wills to make firm on faith (by a clear proof) after showing His assistance to Muhammad, Allah give him peace. It is also said that this means: so that he disbelieves he whom Allah willed him to disbelieve after seeing the clear proof (victory and seizure of the spoils of war by the Prophet (pbuh)) and so that he believes he whom Allah willed him to believe after seeing the clear proof. (Lo! Allah in truth is Hearer) of your supplications, (Knower) of the answer to your calls and assistance.

Tafsir Ibn 'Abbas, trans. Mokrane Guezzou
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