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هُوَ ٱلَّذِيۤ أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكَ ٱلْكِتَابَ مِنْهُ آيَاتٌ مُّحْكَمَاتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ ٱلْكِتَابِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ في قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَابَهَ مِنْهُ ٱبْتِغَاءَ ٱلْفِتْنَةِ وَٱبْتِغَاءَ تَأْوِيلِهِ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلاَّ ٱللَّهُ وَٱلرَّاسِخُونَ فِي ٱلْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ رَبِّنَا وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلاَّ أُوْلُواْ ٱلأَلْبَابِ
-Âl ‘Imrân ( آل عمران )

Tafsir al-Tustari

…As for those in whose hearts is deviation, they follow the allegorical part, desiring sedition…That is, disbelief; …and desiring its interpretation, refers to its interpretation according to the desire of their lower selves. …But no one knows its interpretation except God.Ibn ʿAbbās y said:God sent down the Qurʾān according to four ways of reading (aḥruf): the lawful (ḥalāl) and the unlawful (ḥarām), ignorance of which nobody is excused; the interpretation (tafsīr) according to which the Arabs have interpreted it; the interpretation according to which scholars (ʿulamāʾ) have interpreted it; and the ambiguous (mutashābih), which none but God, Exalted is He, knows, and whoever claims knowledge of it other than God, Mighty and Majestic is He, is lying. His words:
…And those who are firmly rooted in knowledge (rāsikhūna fī’l-ʿilm)…[Sahl] said:It was reported from ʿAlī that he stated, ‘[Those rooted in knowledge] are the ones whom knowledge has protected from plunging [into the interpretation of the Qurʾān] according to some whim (hawā) or with set arguments (ḥujaj maḍrūba) without [awareness of] the unseen [mysteries] (ghuyūb).’ [This is] due to God’s guidance of them, and His disclosing to them His unseen secrets from within the treasure chests of knowledge. Thus they said, We believe in the Book; all of it is from our Lord [3:7]. So God, Exalted is He, acknowledged them [in this verse], and made them among the people of profound and far-reaching knowledge, as an increase granted to them from Him. Just as God has said, Exalted is He, But say: ‘O my Lord! Advance me in knowledge [20:114]’.Sahl also said:God, Blessed and Exalted is He, showed those who are firmly rooted in knowledge to be exceptionalbecause of their saying all of it is from our Lord [3:7], by which they mean, the abrogating and the abrogated, the clear and the ambiguous. They are the ones who reveal three [ways of] knowing (ʿulūm), since those who know (ʿulamāʾ) may be [designated in] three [ways], namely: those [whose knowledge derives from] the divine lordliness (rabbāniyyūn), those [whose knowledge derives from] the divine light (nurāniyyūn); and those [whose knowledge derives from] the divine essence’ (dhātiyyūn). [Those firmly rooted in knowledge reveal] in addition four [other kinds] of knowledge: revelation (waḥy), theophany (tajallī), knowledge directly bestowed by God (ʿindī) and knowledge from the divine presence (ladunnī), just as God has said, to whom We had given mercy from Us and We had taught him knowledge from Us [18:65], [and when He said], Yet none remembers but the people of inner substance [2:269], that is, none reflects save the people of understanding (fahm) and intellect (ʿuqūl), who say:

Tafsīr al-Tustarī, trans. Annabel Keeler and Ali Keeler
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